Chapter 19. Building Packages for Multiple Architectures and Operating Systems

While RPM certainly makes packaging software as easy as possible, it doesn't end there. RPM gives you the tools you need to build a package on different types of computers. More importantly, RPM makes it possible to build packages on different types of computers using a single spec file. Those of you that have developed software for different computers know the importance of maintaining a single set of sources. RPM lets you continue that practice through the package building phase.

Before we get into RPM's capabilities, let's do a quick review of what is involved in developing software for different types of computer systems.

Architectures and Operating Systems: A Primer

From a software engineering standpoint, there are only two major differences between any two computer systems:

  1. The architecture implemented by the computer's hardware.

  2. The system software running on the computer.

The first difference is built into the computer. The architecture is the manner in which the computer system was designed. It includes the number and type of registers present in the processor, the number of machine instructions, what operations they perform, and so on. For example, every "PC" today, no matter who built it, is based on the Intel x86 architecture.

The second difference is more under our control. The operating system is software that controls how the system operates. Different operating systems have different methods of storing information on disk, different ways of implementing functions used by programs, and different hardware requirements.

As far as package building is concerned, two systems with the same architecture running two different operating systems, are as different as two systems with different architectures running the same operating system. In the first case, the software being packaged for different operating systems will differ due to the differences between the operating systems. In the second case, the software being packaged for different architectures will differ due to the underlying differences in hardware. [1]

RPM supports differences in architecture and operating system equally. If there is a tag, rpmrc file entry, or conditional that is used to support architectural differences, there is a corresponding tag, entry, or conditional that supports operating system differences.

Let's Just Call Them Platforms

In order to keep the duplication in this chapter to a minimum, we'll refer to a computer of a given architecture running a given operating system as a platform. If another system differs in either aspect, it is considered a different platform.

OK, now that we've gotten through the preliminaries, let's look at RPM's multi-platform capabilities.



This is a somewhat simplistic view of the matter, as it's common for incompatibilities to crop up between two different implementations of the same operating system on different architectures.